Geometry has existed in many buildings and design forms across centuries. The first confirmed record of geometric knowledge and its relationship to astronomy, human and music can be traced back to the ancient Greeks, in particular, Pythagoras and Plato. However, prior to the Greeks, many old civilizations have left clear geometric footprints by applying sacred geometry in their constructions. The prehistoric carved stones found in Scotland representing the Platonic Solids.1 can be dated back to over a thousand years earlier than the Greeks.2 The Greeks may well have been the first to have offered geometry to the public, but they were, by no means, the first to realize it (Critchlow, 1987 ; Hecht, 1988 ; Critchlow, 1987 ).
Geometry or proportional geometry is a sacred art form due to its fundamental association with the Creations principal laws. The visual expression of the order of these laws is best represented through the discipline of geometry. Geometry is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Its quantitative dimension regulates the order and construction of design forms. Its qualitative nature sets the proportions of design forms and represents an expression of the order of the universe as a visual representation of the truth. Each figure or geometric shape, when seen from the perspective of its symbolic meaning, represents an echo of unity and a reflection of the values and principles within the larger frame beyond that unity (universal unity) (Ardalan and Bakhtiar, 2000 ). Seyyid Hossein Nasr argued that geometry and rhythm manifest a doctrine of unity which is central to Islam, upon which Islamic art developed based on mathematical ratios and proportions which represent the very heart of Islam (Critchlow, 1976 ).
These and other similarities are seen in sacred geometry to serve as the further proof of the cosmic significance of geometric forms. Islamic architecture is created based on the essential harmonies of nature together with various symbolic meanings and theories of perfect proportions. The designers based their geometrical vocabulary on what they have seen in the nature around them, in an attempt to develop a codified series of proportions which may improve our psychological comfort with buildings (Skinner, 2009 ).
It has been proposed that the understanding of sacred geometry was extended into time and space. We may never know for sure whether such geometry was identified first from the observation of natural formations, or alternatively, it came as a result of an intellectual quest. However, whichever it would be, it is clear that these mathematical codes derived from nature began to be applied in the design of many important man-made structures.
Geometric proportions regulate the order of patterns based on mathematical ratios, which is influential in understanding the universe, man and nature; these proportions are, by their nature, the essential ingredients in sacred geometry, as Pythagoreans stated that these harmonic ratios render music in a balanced pattern.
The geometry as well as its rhythm shown in Islamic patterns illustrates an infinite variety, permitting and encouraging contemplative reflections. It is one of the most powerful forms of sacred art It is a source of contemplation that allows our minds to wander and contemplate the infinite. These patterns were developed with strict geometric rules, relating to the understanding of natural forms based on geometric ratios in the cosmos, set as the prime mover behind design. 1e1e36bf2d